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不同的隐士境界——《瓦尔登湖》和《桃花源记》的对比


不同的隐士境界——《瓦尔登湖》和《桃花源记》的对比


The Comparison of Hermit State of Two Different Thinkers
in Walden and The Peach Colony

Abstract: As a Transcendentalist of 19th century, Henry David Thoreau has his particular thought for life under the influence of Emerson. Walden, as his masterpiece, records his natural life in Walden and flicks a strong charm of himself. As a traditional scholar of Jin Dynasty, Tao Yuanming does a special choice that he goes back to a mountain which is far away from the dark reality. In later years, Tao writes such a masterpiece, The Peach Colony, which depicts a Utopia-like society and satisfies people’s desire for living happily.
Two writers not only live in different countries and ages, but also own different cultural knowledge. However, facing reality that they don’t want to bear, they choose to make a living in nature. The most important is that they write their masterpiece, either Walden or The Peach Colony, which give their generations many meditations. Therefore, this paper aims at comparing Thoreau’s Walden with Tao’s The Peach Colony in order to explore their different hermit state.
The structure of this paper is “Introduction — Elucidation — Conclusion”. In the first part, it introduces two authors and their woks briefly in order to lead to the main contents. In the second part, this paper makes a summary of some former researches about this thesis. In the third part, this paper puts emphasis on contrasts between Thoreau and Tao Yuanming, not only refers to the background of their writing and the pursuit for the harmonious society, but also explains the language character of two works. In the fourth part, as for sceneries, on one hand, this paper discusses the beauty of the entrance and plants; on the other hand, it gives an explanation of the view of nature. Through those comparisons, readers can understand the diversity in Walden and the generality in The Peach Colony. In the fifth part, this paper makes a comparison of the scenes of life between “a big family” and “one person”. At the beginning, it compares the living environment, both the residence and the interaction with the world. Then it narrates differences between the attitude towards life, such as the degree and the pattern of a natural life. In the last part, it makes a conclusion to the whole paper.

Key words: hermit; nature; comparison
不同的思想家,不同的隐士境界——《瓦尔登湖》和《桃花源记》的对比

摘  要: 梭罗作为19世纪的一位超验主义作家,深受爱默生的影响而回归自然,过了两年半自给自足的生活。他的代表作《瓦尔登湖》,描述了自己在瓦尔登湖畔生活的诸多细节和周围的种种生物包括人的活动,刻画了一幕幕与自然和谐相处的场景,尤其是自己种豆子、收割果实等的刻画更让我们看到了一个思想家用行动践行着自己的超验主义思想。相反,作为东晋末年的一位学者,陶渊明在官场失利之后回归自然,成为中国一代隐士。他的代表作《桃花源记》,描写了一个乌托邦式的“世外桃源”,以此来抒发自己对于这样一个不同于现实黑暗世界的美好世界的向往之情。
梭罗和陶渊明虽然是在不同国家、不同地域,也有不同的文化背景, 但是他们最终选择了归隐的方式,过着 “简单” 的自然生活,经过沉淀,二人写成了自己的代表作——《瓦尔登湖》和《桃花源记》。尽管二人的代表作都体现了隐士思想, 但是两部作品也存在不少差异,比如说二人思想和写作背景,风景的整体性和多样性的对比,生活理念的差异。该论文以二人的隐士思想做铺垫,从不同的角度出发对两部作品进行比较,并给后人留下了很多沉思。
本论文采用“总——分——总”的结构。在引言部分,该文对两部作品和两个作家做了一个比较简略的介绍,并引出了对两部作品一些不同点的对比。第二部分为文献综述,是本论题目前的一些研究情况。第三部分主要从梭罗和陶渊明的个人差异入手, 讲述了他们不同的写作背景、写作原因和写作风格。第四部分通过对风景描写的不同、植物描写的差异、自然观的不同,进行了整体性和多样性的对比。第五部分比较了生活环境和生活态度的不同, 尤其是生活方式的不同,提出了 “一家子”和 “一个人”的不同。论文最后一部分对文章进行了一个总结,即隐士精神下的不同状态。总之,该论文以梭罗和陶渊明的隐居原因为出发点,对《瓦尔登湖》和《桃花源记》进行进一步的比较,让读者体会中西两大隐士回归自然的同异之处。

关键词:隐士;自然;差异

 


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