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从生态女性主义的角度分析《羚羊与秧鸡》


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【摘要】

从生态女性主义的角度分析《羚羊与秧鸡》


随着社会的不断进步与发展,科学技术逐渐走进人类的生活当中。一方面,它促进了生产方式与生活方式的进步,另一方面,它也带来了一些潜在的危机,引发了一些环境问题与社会问题。近年来,许多文学家也针对这一问题发表了许多著作,表达了个人独到的见解,玛格丽特•阿特伍德就是其中的一位。作为加拿大当代著名诗人、小说家与文学评论家,阿特伍德有着“加拿大文学女王”之称,她的许多作品都体现着她的生态女性主义的思想,展现着她对生态的关怀和女性的关怀,强调女性的特质与自然之间独特的血融关系。
本文主要由引言、正文和结论三部分构成。其主要内容如下。
第一部分是引言。引言部分主要概括和总结了国内外对阿特伍德作品的研究现状,指出从生态女性主义的角度分析《羚羊与秧鸡》的目的与意义。
第二部分为正文,共分为三章。
第一章首先介绍了阿特伍德的生平,包括她的童年经历、求学经历和取得的成就。随后介绍了本文所分析的《羚羊与秧鸡》的故事梗概和叙事线索。本章的第二部分简要介绍了生态女性主义的起源、流派和基本观点。第三部分阐述了阿特伍德与生态女性主义的关系,重点放在了其生态女性主义思想的形成过程上。
第二章解读与分析了《羚羊与秧鸡》中男权主义体制统治下自然和女性所遭受的压迫。首先讲述了人类对于自然的压迫,具体表现在生态环境的破坏以及基因与物种的变异方面。其次介绍了男性对于女性的压迫,并通过小说中“羚羊”与“吉米母亲”这两个角色来进行具体的阐释。
第三章探讨了自然与女性对于不公的压迫所进行的反抗。首先分析了小说中自然对人类的反击,包括越来越多的自然灾害和人类的自食其果。其次分析了女性在精神上以及行动上做出的反抗,并再次通过“羚羊”与“吉米母亲”这两个角色分别加以体现。
第三部分为总结。这部分主要总结了前文所论述的小说中自然与女性所遭受的压迫以及他们所做出的反抗,从而得出结论并点明主旨:人与自然、男性与女性都应该平等发展、和谐共处,以达到良性发展的状态。

关键词:生态女性主义;《羚羊与秧鸡》;平等;和谐关系
Abstract
With the development of the society, science and technology plays an important role in the human life. On one hand, it promotes production mode as well as our life styles while on the other hand, it also brings some potential crisis, leading to some environmental and social problems. Based on this matter of fact, many writers publish various works to express their personal ideas. Margaret Atwood is one of them. As a famous contemporary poet, novelist and literary critic of Canada, she is known as the “Queen of Canadian literature”. Many of her works reflect her ideas about ecofeminism, showing her loving care for ecologism and feminism, putting emphasis on the deep relationship between the female and ecology.
This thesis consists of three parts, an introduction, the main body and a conclusion are included. Its main contents are as follows.
The first part is the introduction. It summarizes the research status of Margaret Atwood’s works both at home and abroad and puts forward the purpose and significance of analyzing the Oryx and Crake from the perspective of ecofeminism.
The second part is the main body which is divided into three chapters.
Chapter I describes the life stories of Margaret Atwood, including her childhood, education experiences and her achievements. Then it introduces the synopsis of Oryx and Crake as well as its narrative clues. The second part of this chapter gives a brief account of the origin, schools and basic ideas of ecofeminism. The third part of this chapter shows the relationship between Margaret Atwood and the term of ecofeminism, focusing on the formation of eco-feminist ideology of Margaret Atwood.
Chapter II analyzes how nature and women are oppressed under the patriarchal system in the novel. First, it represents the crisis of nature which comes from the domination of human beings, including the destruction of ecological environment as well as the variation of genes and species. Second, it interprets the crisis of females, deriving from the males, which is embodied by the two characters in Oryx and Crake as “Oryx” and “Jimmy’s mother”.
Chapter III discusses the resistance of nature and female respectively. First, it analyzes the resistance of nature, including more and more natural disasters and humans’ taking consequences of what they have done. Then, it shows the resistance of the female on both the mentality and the action. And again, the two characters, “Oryx” and “Jimmy’s mother” are used to reflect the resistance of females in detail.
The last part is the conclusion. It mainly summarizes the crisis and the resistance of nature and female in the novel mentioned in the main body. Thus, the final conclusion is made and the main idea is pointed out that human and nature as well as male and female should develop in equality and live in harmony so that a state of benign development can be achieved.

 
Key Words:ecofeminism;Oryx and Crake;equality;harmonious relationship

 

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