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探寻《霍比特人》中的成长小说要素


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【摘要】

探寻《霍比特人》中的成长小说要素

玛丽安•赫希曾建立与提出成长小说七要素, 本文运用此理论来探寻《霍比特人》之文学类型,发现七要素均与主人公比尔博的成长变化相关联。叙事者(第三人称)的口吻从小说开端几近调侃主人公过渡到中后期严肃与平实的叙事语调;其与比尔博看待事物观点上的差异,随故事推进而变小,甚至消失。当主人公开始积极面对生活,被动束缚、停滞不前的枷锁也随之打破。一路行来,甘道夫的机智应对、十三矮人的秉性弱点,比尔博尽收眼底;在愈发艰难的险境中变得更有勇气、更为明智。主人公的个人成长与道德精神的升华,不仅是《霍比特人》,也是成长小说的灵魂要素。伴与以上要素在此小说中的体现,本文探寻结论:《霍比特人》的主要文学类型是成长小说。

关键词:成长小说;个人成长;《霍比特人》
Abstract

Following Marianne Hirsch’s seven elements of Bildungsroman in an effort to discover The Hobbit’s literary genre, we find, in The Hobbit, that they track Bilbo’s personal growth. The narrator’s tone goes from whimsical in the beginning of the novel to a more serious tone in later parts of the novel. The distance in perspective between Bilbo and narrator narrows as the journey progresses and Bilbo’s passivity gradually gives way as he begins to face life more actively. Bilbo transforms from being conventional and isolated to seeing and handling things more courageously and wisely over the course of his adventure with Gandalf the educator and the dwarves his companions. The incidents of the quest become more and more demanding, but Bilbo’s spirit and courage do not sink as they do in the beginning of the novel. Bilbo’s moral and personal growth, his maturity, is the main concern of The Hobbit, and also of Bildungsroman, and is tracked clearly and effectively through its elements—we thus conclude The Hobbit is a Bildungsroman.

Key Words: Bildungsroman; personal growth; The Hobbit

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