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浅析《第二十二条军规》中的荒诞艺术


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【摘要】

浅析《第二十二条军规》中的荒诞艺术

海勒的代表作《第二十二条军规》是黑色幽默的经典作品,其结构看似散乱,却是精心策划下用以表现现实社会及其官僚机器的荒诞、疯狂和不可理喻的独特手法。海勒小说的黑色内涵极其丰富,它不仅呈现了文学创作从现代主义到后现代主义过渡时期所独有的特色,彰显了当世流行的存在主义思潮的影响,同时也反映了作者所处时代特殊的社会背景和他与众不同的生活经历。从本质上讲,它是在存在主义思潮和荒诞背景下现代人的一种生存逻辑。在海勒的作品中,幽默存在的意义不仅在于产生即时的令人忍俊不禁的效果,其更重要的意义在于之后所引发的读者对幽默表象下所要传达的荒诞的反思。本文针对海勒在表现手法上的独树一帜,探讨其如何抛弃传统方法,采用独特的语言技巧以融合小说的主题和结构,使之达到完美的和谐和相辅相成的效果。并从结构和语言两方面,讨论小说如何使用自相矛盾句,含糊句,异常复杂句和重复句而达到了强烈的病态幽默效果以及如何使用散乱重复,顺序颠倒的结构来突出和强调荒诞的时代。

关键词:黑色幽默;荒诞;美国文化; 《第二十二条军规》
 
Abstract
Heller’s masterpiece, Catch-22 is a classic work of black humor. Its structure seems unorganized, but it is carefully planned to express the reality of the society and its bureaucratic machinery of the absurd, crazy and ridiculous unique approach. Heller’s novels have extremely rich “black” connotation which not only presents the unique characteristics of literature creation from modernism to postmodernism but also highlights the impacts of the popular existentialism at that time. At the same time, it also reflects the special social background and his unique life experiences in Heller’s time. Essentially, it is a kind of logic of survival in the presence of absurd ideologies and modern background. In Heller’s work, the significance humor exists lies in not only an immediate effect that makes the reader laugh but the absurdity it conveys to make the reader reflect. Aiming at Heller’s unique performance practices, this paper will discuss how he abandoned traditional methods and used unique language skills in fusion of the fiction’s theme and structure so as to achieve perfect harmony and mutually reinforcing effects. Besides, from two aspects of structure and language, this paper will discuss how contradictory sentences, ambiguous sentences, complex sentences and repeated sentences are used to achieve the effect of intense morbid humor and how scattered repetition and reverse order are used to highlight and emphasize the time of absurdity.


Key words: black humor; absurdity; American culture; Catch-22

 

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