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跨文化视角下的中美大学生科技创新能力对比研究


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【摘要】

跨文化视角下的中美大学生科技创新能力对比研究


江泽民同志一再强调:“创新是一个民族进步的灵魂,是一个国家兴旺发达的不竭动力。这是被历史反复证明了的人类发展的客观真理。”在世界科技进步日新月异的今天,科技创新进一步成为经济和社会发展的主导力量。在经济全球化的21世纪,中华民族的复兴与崛起,必然离不开各个领域的创新,尤其是科技创新。中国创新的关键在人才,人才的培养必须从大学时代抓起。历史证明,大学时代是最富有创新精神的黄金时代。当今很多优秀的发明创新人才都是在大学阶段发挥其无穷的创新潜能,比尔盖茨、乔布斯、马克扎克伯格都是在大学期间发掘了自身的创新潜能。然而,我国大学生目前普遍创新意识不强,创新能力、动手能力及解决问题的能力远不及美国大学生。在高素质人才主宰的、竞争日益剧烈的21世纪,我国现行大学教育模式培养出的缺乏创新能力的大学生怎能担当起民族复兴的伟大使命。要改变我国现状,一是要找出造成了如此现状的原因;二是要针对这些原因找出解决的办法。基于这一思考,我在这方面作了一定的研究。
本文详细分析了当今中美两国大学生在科技创新领域的具体表现差异,并结合霍夫斯塔德的文化维度理论从个人主义与集体主义价值观以及权力距离的角度对造成中美大学生科技创新能力差异的原因进行了分析。最后在结合上述差异分析及原因分析的基础之上对中美大学生提高科技创新能力提供了宝贵的借鉴及指导意义。
关键词:科技创新;创新潜能;文化维度理论;借鉴及指导意义
A Comparative Study of Scientific and Technological Innovation Capabilities of Chinese and American College Students from a Cross-cultural Perspective

Abstract: The main purpose of the thesis is to show the gap of science and technology innovation capability between Chinese and American college students and the emergent need and pressing necessity of renewing the traditional teaching method in Chinese colleges. First this thesis makes a comparison of the science and technology innovation capability of Chinese and American college students in detail, illustrates the difference of teaching mode in colleges of China and America and the effects produced on building the science and technology innovation capability of college students by this difference, and further probes into the causes of the difference of teaching method combining Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory, especially individualism and collectivism as well as power distance. We should know clearly the significance of innovation and practice of college students and the respective functions of school, family and society in cultivation of innovative capability of college students. Eliciting from the successful experience of American college education, I give some suggestions about cultivation of science and technology innovation capability of Chinese college students.
In a word, a climate favorable to the innovative ideas and ability of college students should be created in China. As a result, the innovation spirit and think of college students will be inspired and their innovative capability will also be enhanced.
Keywords: emergent need; science and innovation capability; teaching method; cultural dimension theory

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