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艾米丽•勃朗特与《呼啸山庄》中女主人公的自恋情结


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艾米丽勃朗特与《呼啸山庄》中女主人公的自恋情结
根据弗洛伊德精神分析理论中有关自恋部分的理论,以及现代的自恋理论,可以看出艾米丽•勃朗特在童年时期以及后来的青少年时期所遭遇的不幸使得其具有一定的自恋倾向。她唯一的一部小说《呼啸山庄》证实了这一点。
艾米丽•勃朗特幼年失母,后又在一个极度缺少关爱的环境下成长,自我未能得到很好的发展,力比多无法找到回到客体对象的途径,转而投向自己,于是就形成了自恋情结。她后来所表现出来的强烈的自我意识、对自然的热爱以及男子性格都证实了这一点。
弗洛伊德认为,文学艺术是力比多的升华,作家潜意识的心理活动往往在文学艺术的主题中表现出来。《呼啸山庄》的女主人公即是艾米丽•勃朗特本人的一个投射。与艾米丽•勃朗特相似的是:凯瑟琳同样幼年丧母,在一个极度缺乏关爱的环境下成长,自我发展受到严重的阻碍,强烈自爱意识被激发出来。另外,她还得了歇斯底里症与思乡症。这些都证明了凯瑟琳同样有自恋情结。
本文通过这些理论分析,得出艾米丽本人对其创造的人物有着深刻的影响这一结论。
关键词:自恋情结;艾米丽•勃朗特;凯瑟琳•恩萧;呼啸山庄;弗洛伊德;
Abstract: According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory of narcissism and the other theories of narcissism,Emily Bronte suffers some traumas in her period of self-development,which lead to her narcissism.Her only novel,Wuthering Heights,proves it.
Emily Bronte lost her mother in her childhood,then grew up in an indifferent environment, which hindered her self-development to some extent. Instead of finding the way to go to the object,libido turns back to herself,which leads to her narcissism.And it is proved by her strong self-consciousness, love for nature and  masculine character.
Freud believes that literature is a sublimation of the libido,and writers’ unconscious mental activities will express in their work.Catherine,the female character in Wuthering Heights, is a projection of Emily.She has the same experiments with Emily:Catherine lost her mother very early,and then grew up in an environment that there was no one who truly cared about her.So her self-development is hindered severely,and her strong self-love is aroused.In addition,she also has hysteria and nostalgia.These all prove that Catherine has narcissism as Emily does.
Keywords: Narcissism; Emily Bronte; Catherine Earnshaw;Wuthering Heights;Freud;