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从狄更斯文学创作三个不同时期的代表作分析其人性观的转变


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【摘要】

从狄更斯文学创作三个不同时期的代表作分析其人性观的转变

Charles Dickens is a representative writer of English critical realism in the 19th century. Dickens is able to compare with literary giants like Shakespeare in the history of English literature. He has achieved a lot all his life at all levels. There are three important aspects of the ideological contents of Dickens' novels, such as the social criticism, the promotion on the ethics and the exploration of human nature.[10] This paper tries to start from Dickens's major works about the human nature through the analysis of different autobiographical representative works during the 3 periods ------ "Oliver Twist", "David Copperfield" and "Great Expectations", showing the developments and changes of the view of human nature of Dickens, that is, from the initial blind optimism mentality to the middle bewilderment and confusion, to the pessimism and despair lately.
In the introduction part, the author makes a brief introduction of Dickens, introducing the backgrounds of Victorian age and showing the importance of the representative works of these three periods.
In the first chapter, by analyzing characters of Dickens's early masterpiece "Oliver Twist", Dickens elaborates his blind optimism in this period of creation. It discusses Oliver's innocence and purity and analyzes a series of ideal and good qualities of bourgeois, demonstrating that Dickens still had a positive and optimistic attitude in the extreme environment of humanity. In the second chapter, by analyzing the typical characters of Dickens's medium-term masterpiece "David Copperfield", with a disclosure of the human nature seen in many characters, Dickens points out furthermore his own confusion as for what a real humanity should be. In the third chapter, by analyzing the typical characters of Dickens's late masterpiece "Great Expectations", the author explains Dickens' return to good humanity and fantasies in this period. At the same time, he has much deeper and much purer knowledge of the capitalist system under the ugly reality, which distorts the bourgeois nature.
The conclusion part is a summary of Dickens's changing view of human nature ----- from the blind optimism about human nature, to the extreme confusion about society, to the final pessimistic view of human nature. Dickens’s changing view of human nature was an authentic reflection of the real changes of social life in the Victorian age, which boldly exposes and criticizes bourgeois society and the ugly human nature. It also further establishes Dickens’s irreplaceable position as a great writer of critical realism in the history of world literature.
Keywords: Charles Dickens; human nature view; change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

摘要

查尔斯·狄更斯是英国 19 世纪批判现实主义的代表作家,在英国文学史上,狄更斯是能够与莎士比亚相比肩的文坛巨擘。他的一生创作成果颇丰,小说内容触及维多利亚社会生活的各个层面。其中,对社会的批判、对道德的弘扬及对人性的探索是狄更斯长篇小说思想内容的三个重要方面。本论文试从狄更斯主要小说作品对人性探索的角度入手,通过分析其不同文学创作时期的三部极具自传体色彩的代表性作品——《雾都孤儿》、《大卫·科波菲尔》和《远大前程》,展现其人性观的发展和变化趋势:从最初的盲目乐观心态到中期的困惑和迷茫,及至晚期的悲观与绝望。
引言部分概述狄更斯本人,介绍维多利亚时期时代背景,展现其三个时期代表作品的重要性。
第一章通过分析狄更斯早期代表作《雾都孤儿》中的人物形象,论证了狄更斯在这一创作时期对人性的盲目乐观态度。通过描述奥利弗的天真与纯洁以及一系列资产阶级人们的美好品质,表达了狄更斯对资产阶级改良的美好愿望,并论证了作者在极端恶劣环境中对美好人性依然抱有积极乐观的心态。第二章通过分析狄更斯中期代表作《大卫·科波菲尔》中的典型人物形象,通过分析相关人物形象,揭示了不同阶级人性的本质,进一步阐释狄更斯对人性真谛的困惑。第三章通过分析狄更斯文学创作晚期代表作《远大前程》中的典型人物形象,阐释了其在这一时期对美好人性的回归怀有幻想的同时,又对虚华资本主义体制下的丑恶现实有了更彻底、更纯粹的认识,从而对扭曲的资产阶级人性进行了无情的揭露。
结论部分通过总结狄更斯文学创作的三个不同时期的代表作品,集中体现了其人性观的转变历程--从对人性的盲目乐观到对自身、对社会的极度困惑迷茫,到最终悲观绝望的人性观。狄更斯人性观的转变真实的影射了维多利亚时期社会生活的变化,大胆的揭露和批判了资产阶级现实社会存在的丑恶人性,进一步确立了其作为一位伟大的批判现实主义作家在世界文学史上的不可替代的地位。
关键词:查尔斯·狄更斯;人性观;转变

 

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