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《德伯家的苔丝》中苔丝悲剧的女性主义分析


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《德伯家的苔丝》中苔丝悲剧的女性主义分析


   Tess of the D'Urbervilles, written by Thomas Hardy who is an excellent novelist and poet in the history of British literature, is a great novel loved by readers.
The Feminist Analysis of Tess's Tragedy in Tess of the D'Urbervilles is mainly to analyze the reasons of Tess’s tragedy. Under the background of the capitalist economy blooming, peasants, including Tess, came out for living because of poor family. Tess was a pure girl, but was ruined by two important men, Alec and Angel, whose influence we will analyze on Tess’s fate. Alec seduced Tess and left Tess a bad life. Later, Tess fell in love with Angel but her former story made her abandoned by Angel. The sexual pursuer, Alec, was killed by Tess. And Tess was arrested. Her whole life was ruined. Tess’s tragedy was not only caused by the outer reasons, including the social environment, but also the inner reasons, the coward character. We stand in the Marxist Feminism position to analyze her tragedy.
 The thesis is divided into three parts to analyze the feminism in of Tess’s tragedy in Tess of the D'Urbervilles. In the first part, it mainly discusses Tess’s tragedy caused by the inner reasons, namely the characteristics, such as her compromise and easy treat. In the second part, it mainly talks about Tess’s tragedy caused by outer reasons, such as the social class and status, the development of capitalism, the injustice of gender, the hypocritical morality and the domestic discipline, which leads to her unavoidable tragedy in the end. In the last part, it tells two important men in Tess’s life, Alec and Angel. The former one is Tess’s sexual pursuer, who has destroyed Tess’s happiness totally in his way, which he called ‘love’. The later one is Tess’s spiritual lover, who has made Tess totally depressed because of his spiritual strike.
 
Key words : Tess of the D'Urbervilles;tragedy;  feminism
摘  要
 《德伯家的苔丝》是英国文学史上一位非常著名的小说家、诗人托马斯·哈代所写,深受读者喜爱。
 本论文主要分析苔丝悲剧的成因。在资本主义经济日益受推崇的情况之下,一些包括苔丝在内的农民,因家境贫寒而外出挣钱谋生。苔丝十分纯洁,我们将从她生命中重要的两个男人分析她的悲剧,这两个男人是亚雷·德伯和安琪儿·克莱。苔丝受到亚雷·德伯的诱奸之后,生活一度陷入困难的境地。之后,苔丝与安琪儿·克莱坠入爱河。但安琪儿·克莱在得知苔丝之前的遭遇之后,果断抛弃了苔丝。后来,苔丝杀死了肉体追求者亚雷·德伯。苔丝的一生就这样毁了。苔丝的悲剧不仅是由外部原因造成的,其中包括社会环境因素,也包括苔丝本人的内在因素,比如其生性懦弱。我们将站在马克思女性主义的角度来分析苔丝悲惨命运的形成原因。
 本论文以女性主义视角分三部分分析《德伯家的苔丝》中苔丝悲剧的成因。在第一部分中,主要讨论造成苔丝悲剧的内在因素,即性格,例如:苔丝对他人和事情的妥协与其容易受欺骗的性格。在第二部分中,主要讨论造成苔丝悲剧的外在原因,例如:苔丝的社会阶层和社会地位,资本主义的发展,因性别引起的不公待遇,当时社会对道德的过分要求和家教等。这些都导致了苔丝的悲剧不可避免。最后一部分,讨论了苔丝生命中两个重要的男人,亚雷和安琪儿。前者为苔丝的肉体追求者,用其所谓的“爱”的方式毁掉了苔丝的一生。后者是苔丝的精神追求者,因其对苔丝的精神打击,使得苔丝精神崩溃。
 
关键词:德伯家的苔丝;悲剧;女性主义
 
CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………..1
Chapter One Tess’s Tragedy Caused by Inner Reason …..………...........2
I. An Introduction of Thomas Hardy and Tess of the D’Urbervilles .………….....2
II. An Introduction of Marxist Feminism ……….….……………………….........4
    1. The Definition of Marxist Feminism ………………………………..........5
    2. The Use of Marxist Feminism in Literature ..………………………...…..5
    3. The Development of Marxist Feminism …………………………………6
III. The Analysis of Tess’s Characteristics ……………………………………….6
Chapter Two Tess’s Tragedy Caused by Outer Reasons .……………….9
   I. The Social Class and Status of Tess …………………………………………….9
II. The Development of Capitalism ………………………………….…………....9
   III. The Injustice of Gender ……………………………………………………...10
   IV. The Hypocritical Morality …………………………………………………...11
   V. The Domestic Discipline………………………………………………………13
Chapter Three Tess’s Tragedy Caused by Two Unavoidable Men …..15
   I. The Sexual Pursuer—Alec …………………………………………………….15
   II. The Spiritual Lover—Angel ………………………………………………….16
Conclusion................................................................................................20
Bibliography…………………………………………………………....21